Editor’s Notice: Khrystyna Kushnir is a marketing consultant on micro, small and medium-sized enterprises with the Enterprise Evaluation Unit of the World Financial institution Group.
On the G-20 summit in Pittsburgh final yr, the assembled authorities agreed to “scale up profitable fashions of small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) financing.” The G-20 assigned the IFC and different worldwide organizations to launch a G-20 Monetary Inclusion Consultants Group and requested the personal sector to give you concepts by way of G-20 SME Finance Problem. This elevated consideration to micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs) begs the query — what, precisely, ought to be thought of an MSME?
With the difficulty of MSMEs taking part in out on a global stage, it’s tempting to attempt to discover a common MSME definition. A common MSME definition would ease the design of loans, investments, grants and statistical analysis. One such effort is IFC’s SME Definition Deep-dive Evaluation and Suggestions, though it is presently on maintain due to inside restructuring.
As a part of the G-20 follow-up work, IFC is presently engaged on a 2010 replace of the Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises: A Assortment of Revealed Knowledge. Whereas recording the assorted definitions of MSME utilized in 120+ of probably the most populous world economies, I used to be struck by the big selection of approaches governments take to outline what precisely an ‘MSME’ is of their financial system.
For instance, in China an MSME might be an enterprise with 1 to 3000 staff; whole belongings from ¥ 40 to 400 million and enterprise revenues from ¥10 to 300 million relying on the trade. In the meantime, the EU considers an MSME an enterprise with as much as 250 staff and turnover of not more than €50 million or a complete steadiness sheet of not more than € 43 million.
Hypothetically, the selection of MSME definition might depend upon many components, similar to enterprise tradition; the dimensions of the nation’s inhabitants; trade; and the extent of worldwide financial integration. Or it could possibly be the results of companies lobbying for a specific definition, which might qualify their enterprise for governmental MSME help program. This may end up in some very unusual distinctions between companies. For instance, in a single case an enterprise manufacturing petroleum merchandise is taken into account an MSME if it employs lower than 68 individuals; but when an analogous enterprise manufactures chemical merchandise, then the brink for it to be thought of an MSME is raised to a most of 100 staff.
These points make it tough to undertake a common MSME definition and lift the query of whether or not it is sensible to try for what, in the long run, may merely be a Procrustean mattress. It would make extra sense to measure MSMEs with a single ruler, e.g. annual gross sales or turnover and/or variety of staff, however tailor the dimensions breakdown to explicit situations within the nation of operation.
Of their paper Defining SMEs: A Much less Imperfect Method of Defining Small and Medium Enterprises in Growing International locations, Tom Gibson and H. J. van der Vaartindeed recommend a much less imperfect formulation:
An SME is a proper enterprise with annual turnover, in U.S. greenback phrases, of between 10 and 1000 instances the imply per capita gross nationwide revenue, at buying energy parity, of the nation through which it operates.
The Gibson and Vaart definition is engaging as a result of annual turnover is an effective instrument to evaluate the contribution of MSMEs to GDP. It’s also fulfills the criterion of working as a single ruler. However after in depth empirical analysis on MSME statistics and definitions in over 120 of the world’s most populous economies, I can say that this can be very tough to acquire information on the annual turnover by MSMEs in creating international locations. Additionally, the casual MSMEs in some creating international locations outnumber formal MSMEs by 8 instances. So the issue of one-size-fits-all stays even within the Gibson and Vaart definition.
From my analysis I’ve discovered that the variety of staff was probably the most frequent attribute used within the definitions of nationwide governments and statistical businesses. The info on dimension breakdown was out there for many of nations. The variety of staff can also be a good attribute to evaluate MSMEs’ contribution to GDP.
To sum up, I believe there may be each a technical and a conceptual downside with in search of a common definition of MSMEs. Technically, lack of knowledge is an enormous downside. However even when that could possibly be overcome, economies have various structural, cultural and political causes to undertake completely different definitions of MSMEs that might run counter to any universally agreed definition.